Evaluation Cultural Tourism using Ideology-Utopia Theory (Case Study in Bali)

Document Type : Original Article


Universitas Hindu Negeri I Gusti Bagus Sugriwa Denpasar (State Hindu University in Bali, Indonesia)


Bali tourism is an exploration developed for cultural and environment 
sustainability, to boost revenue, provide job opportunities, improve 
infrastructures, as well as create a sense of civilized exchange between 
foreigners and citizens. Despite the merits of these developmental 
activities, the agricultural lands are still reduced due to the 
construction of hotel resorts for visiting tourists and foreigners. This is 
based on the economic growth of tourist visits and foreign investment, 
which reportedly changed Balinese culture into a product threatening 
the preservation of customs and values, as well as the environment. 
These observations are due to the distance and differences between the 
tourist resorts and local communities, such as Nusa Dua, as shown in 
the tourism planning sector, whose process began through SCETO in 
1971. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the ideas, reality, and 
future of cultural tourism. To explain the development of these 
explorative activities in Bali, the theories of tourism products and 
ideology-utopia were used. A qualitative method was also utilized, 
with data collection techniques carried out through a literature study. 
With the obtained data qualitatively analyzed, the results showed that 
Balinese tourism had shifted customs and values into cultural 
products. This indicated that the idea of cultural tourism had become a 
utopia due to being operated through different systems.